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Thursday, 9 August 2018

Financial Performance Analysis of a Mining Company (Simple Example) - Mineral Economics

1. Analyze the financial performance of the Lihir Gold Limited for 2006. Given the Balance Sheet and Income Statement, calculating the following ratios and interpret the results.

 i.  Analyze the Liquidity/Solvency
This measures the firm’s ability to meet short term obligations i.e. debt payment.

a) Net Working Capital
 Net Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liability
                                    = U$ 132,700, 000 –US$ 207,300, 000
                                     = – US$ 74,600, 000
Net Working Capital shows that Lihir is not capable of meeting its short term obligation. The current assets could not meet the current Liability.

 b) Current Ratio

Current Ratio= Current Assets/  Current Liability     = U$132 700 000/ U$207 300 000= 0.64
                         

Mining’s CF is highly predictable so current ratio of over 1 or 2 is acceptable. Thus Lihir has no short term debt paying ability because current ratio is less than 1.

c) Quick Ratio

Quick Ratio = Current Asset – Inventory/  Current Liability
                     =  U$ 132,700, 000 –U$75300 000/U$ 207300 000 
                     = 0.277
                                         
 Quick ratio> 1 is desired, so Lihir has no immediate ability to meet current debts.

 ii. Analyzing Activity
Activity ratios are used to measure the speed at which various accounts are converted into sales or cash.

 a) Inventory Turnover – shows how soon the inventory will be converted to cash.

Inventory Turnover = Cost of goods sold /  Inventory  = U$ 268100 000 / U$ 75300 000= 3.56
                                             
Exploration expenses = US$ 6000 000 is an expense

Therefore; Inventory Turnover = Cost of goods sold /  Inventory
                                                  = US$ 262100000 / US$75300 000 = 3.48
                                                                 

Inventory turnover is useful only when compared with that of other firms with same industry. For Mining and Petroleum inventory turnover is between 5- 10. However, Lihir has less than that (i.e.3.48) so inventory turnover is very poor. And the number of days required to convert inventory into cash is 360days/3.48 = 103.45 days.


b)Average Collection – average amount time required to collect accounts receivables

Average Collection Period = Accounts receivables /Average Sales/day

                              =  U$4600 000  /U$ 310400 000/360           = 5.3 days
                                                     

The average collection period of 5.3 is indicative of good managed credit collection or credit department.

c) Average payment period – average amount of time needed to pay accounts payable.

 Average Payment period = Accounts payable/ Av. Purchases/day*% of goods sold                     
                                         

US$ (268.1M – 6M (Exploration expense)) = US$ 262.1 M Cost of goods sold;

Average Payment period = US$ 46 600 000 /US$ 262100 000/360 * 0.84 = 76.2
                                        = 76.2 days to pay for credit purchases

 If the credit purchase term is 30 days, financial analysts could give Lihir low credit rating because 76.2 days to payback credit purchases is unacceptable.

 d) Fixed asset turn over – measures the efficiency with which bthe firm has been using its fixed, or earnings, assets to generate sales.

 Fixed assets Turnover =   Sales  /Net fixed assets
                               = US$ 310 400 000 / US$ 86200 000 = 3.6
                             

This means Lihir Mine Ltd’s turnover on its fixed assets is 3.6 times a year. It indicates fixed assets are efficiently used to generate cash flow.


 e) Total asset turnover – indicates the efficiency with which the firm uses all its assets to generate sales.

Total assets turnover = Sales /Total assets   = US$ 310 400 000 / US$ 1 496 000 000  = 0.21
                                     
The overall efficiency of using assets to generate sales is 0.21 which is not a good reflection. It could mean assets are old and need replacement.


iii)Analyzing Debt

a) Debt ratio- measures the proportion of total assets financed by the firm’s creditors.(the higher the ratio reflects greater amount of other people’s money used in an attempt to generate profit)

 Debt ratio   = Total liabilities / Total Assets       = US$ 684 100 000 /US$ 1 496 000 000
                                                                             = 0.457 = 45.7%
                                   
This indicates Lihir has financed 45.7% of its assets with debt which is good.

 b) Debt equity ratio – measures the ratios or long-term debt to stockholders equity. It generally measures the degree of financial leverage of the firm.

Debt Equity Ratio = long term debt /Stockholders equity = US$188 600 000 /US$ 811 900000 =3.23%
                                           
It means Lihir applied 23.23 % debt to procure long – term assets which is lower debt – equity ratio. This indicates that it has a stable cash flow debt that can be paid at a shorter period of time.

c) Times interest earned ratio – measures the firm’s ability to make contractual interest payments.

 Time interest earned = earnings before interest & taxes (EBIT)/ Interest Expense
                                               
                                 =  US$ 80 700 000  / US$(1 400 000 + 6 200 000) = 10.2
                                   
 Lihir time interest earned is 10.2. As a rule, a value of 3 to 5 is a good margin for safety from shrinking and liquidation. However Lihir has exceeded that margin and indicates that Lihir is able to fulfill its interest servicing.

d) Fixed payment coverage ratio – measures the firm’s ability to meet all fixed – payment obligations such as loan interest ,principal, lease payments and preferred stock dividends

Fixed payment coverage ratio
=  EBIT + Lease payments / (  Interest + lease pmt + { ( prin.pmt + preferred stock div) x (1/(1-T))})
   
=   *(US$ 80 700 000 + 0  )/ (      US$ 1 400 000 + 0 +{( 30 600 000 + 0) x (1/(1 – 0.3))}) = 1.7

Note: Principle payment is obtain from year 2005 and PNG Income tax is 30%. No lease payment and no preferred stock dividend for year 2006.

iv. Analyzing profitability 

a) Gross profit margin – indicates the efficiency of management in turning over company’s goods into profit.

Gross profit Margin = (Sales - Cost of Goods sold)/Sales
                                 =   (US$ 310 400 000 – US$ 268 100 000 )/ US$ 310 400 000 = 13.6 %

Exploration expenses = US$ 6000 000 is an expense

Therefore Gross profit Margin= US$310.4M – US$(268.1 - 6)M/   US$ 310.4= 15.56 %
                                                             

The gross profit margin in 2005 is -4.57% or the company has received less revenue. However it has improved in 2006 with gross profit margin of 15.56%.

b) Net profit margin – measures the profit produced by each dollar of sales.

 Net Profit Margin = Net profit after taxes/  Sales  =  US$ 53 800 000 / US$ 310 400 000   = 17.35 %
                                                           
In 2005, the company has net profit margin of 19.0 % and in 2006 with the net profit margin of 17.35%. So in 2005 there is slightly improvement in profit produce by each dollar of sales.

 c) Return on assets (ROA) – measures the overall effectiveness of management in generating profits with its available assets.

 Return on Assets = (Net profit (before extraordinary items) + income tax + Interest )/Average total assets
= (US$ 53 800 000 + US$ 22 100 000 + US$ 1400 000 )/((US$ 1496 000 000 + US$ 1319 400 000)/2)
 = 5.5 % Return of assets
This shows that company has profit earning power using its limited available assets.


d) Return on equity 

Return on equity = net profit – preference dividend /Average stockholders’ equity
                               
                            = ( US$ 53800 000 - 0 ) / (US$1496 000 000 + US$ 1319 400 000)/2   = 3.8%
                               

For every dollar of strockholders’ equity, there is 3.8% return accruing to the stock holder.

 e) Earnings per share – use by stock investor to compare different companies on the basis of earning power of the firm’s each outstanding share on common stock.

Earnings per share = net profit (before extraordinary items) – preference dividend
                                             Number of ordinary shares issued (outstanding)
                     
                                 = (US$ 53 000 000 – 0 )/1284 049000
                                 =US$ 0.041
The EPS of US$0.04 represent dollar amount earned on behalf of each shareholder by the company using each shareholder’s equity.

 f) Price/earnings (P/E) Ratio – is the ratio use to assess the future financial performance of the firm.

Price / earnings = market price per share of common stock earnings per share.
                       
                          = Selling Price / EPS
                               

Note: The Selling price was hardly found in the given data (may be not given in the data) so the Ratio was not calculated.


SUMMARY STATEMENT OF LIHIR GOLD MINE 

A) Liquidity 

Liquidity or Lihir’s ability to meet short term obligations is reasonably not stable and unsecure and there is a short term liquidation problem as observed from liquidity/solvency analysis. It is seen that it will take a long time for Lihir to pay its debt. This is shown by current ratio 0.64 and quick ratio 0.277. Mining’s CF is highly predictable so current ratio of over 1 or 2 is acceptable. Thus Lihir has no short term debt paying ability because current ratio is less than 1. Quick ratio> 1 is desired, so Lihir has no immediate ability to meet current debts.

B) Activity

 Lihir’s inventory appears to be in bad shape and the firm faced problems with account receivables of 103.45 days. Average payment is unacceptable and total assets turnover is not good. However, the average collection period of 5.3 is indicative of good managed credit collection or credit department.

C) Financial Terms

Lihir Mine’s indebtness increase over the year 2005 to 2006. It has no lease payments and the amount of debt is small and can be paid within a short period of time.

 D) Profitability

 Compared to year 2005, Lihir has made great improvement and its net profit was greater than previous year.

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