Learning and Discussion of Innovative ideas about Mining Waste Management and also Mining Related News and Activities

  • Mine Waste Management Training

    Mine Waste Management Short training sponsored by Government of Japan through JICA in corporation with the Government of PNG through CEPA, MRA and DMPGM.

  • Kasuga Gold Mine in Kagoshima, Japan

    Partial Assistance to Masters and PhD Candidates in filling Application Forms for Japanese Scholarships or Self Sponsor

  • Mining Warden Hearing at Ok Isai Village, Frieda River, East Sepik Province, PNG

    Landowner grievances is always a challenge for the PNG Mining Industry. However, the Regulators of the Mining Inductry facilitate Mining Warden Hearings and Development Forums to address grievances related to mining.

  • Osarizawa Underground Mine Adit

    Osarizawa Underground Mine is an abandoned mine in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Event though the mine is closed, the mine site is kept for sightseeing purposes.

  • Hidden Valley Tailings Storage Facility (TSF)

    Mine Waste refers to the waste related to mining activities such as tailings and waste rock. Management refer to how the mine derived waste is managed by the operator and or the Regulatory Body.

Saturday, 19 December 2020

Loading ANFO for Blasting Drill hole

Okinawa Limestone Quarry


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Thursday, 10 December 2020

Partial Assistance to Masters and PhD Candidates in filling Application Forms for Japanese Scholarships or Self Sponsor

This is a general announcement to keen researchers and potential researchers of the Earth Resources Engineering in Papua New Guinea and any other Pacific Island Nations.

If you are one of the interested or  potential research candidate (Master ,PhD, Post PhD etc) who are planning to apply for further studies through Japanese Government Scholarships or self sponsor or by any form of arrangements and need assistance in securing Supervisors/Professors from various Japanese Universities which is one of the requirements for the Scholarship Applications Forms, then we are more than willing to assist you in this regard. 

Our team has been approached by several Professors of the Department of Earth Resources Engineering in Kyushu University Under the Faculty of Engineering to connect any interested research candidate (Master ,PhD, Post PhD etc) who may be interested to study in Japan through either scholarships or by various  sponsorship arrangements.

Kyushu University's Department of Earth Resources Engineering  aims at equipping students with professional-level knowledge in the field of earth resources as well as a grounding in a wide range of engineering fields, the Division of Earth System Engineering provides lectures, lab sessions and practical training as follows:

Economic GeologyResource Geology I & II
Mineral Engineering
Mineral Engineering Experimentation I & II
Exploration GeophysicsGeo-Information Science I, II & III
Geo-Information Science Experimentation I & II
GeothermicsGeothermics
Geothemal Engineering
Geothermal System Modeling
Geothermal Engineering Experimentation I & II
Resources Production
and Safety Engineering
Resources Development and Environment
Resources Production Systems
Safety Engineering
Safety Engineering Experimentation
Resources Production Experimentation
Rock Engineering
and Mining Machinery
Rock Engineering I & II
Mining Machinery System Engineering
Rock Engineering Experimentation I & II
Mineral Processing,
Recycling and Environmental Remediation
Mineral Processing Engineering I, II and III
Mineral Processing Engineering Experimentation I & II
Energy Resources EngineeringEnergy Engineering
Reservoir Engineering
Mass Transfer Engineering
Energy Resources Engineering Experimentation I & II

 Source: https://www.eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp/e/g_earth.html 


If you are interested or need guidance in this regard then feel free to contact us through the contact form on our website.

The requirements and steps are:

1. Topic of Research

2. Your Scope of Study or Study Plan is basically the brief of what you intend to do under your topic selected. i.e. Introduction, Objective, Methodology etc.. Have a clear idea on the topic.

3. State Clearly which Laboratory you would like to apply to do your research. The Laboratory of your choice can either be related to your topic.

4. Provide you contact information especially e-mail. 

5. We will introduce your topic and your contact to the Professors concern.

6. The Professors will then contact you for further discussions regarding your topic and research plan and further provide direction for actions at your end including the entry requirements and applications.

Kasuga Gold Mine in Kagoshima, Japan


DISCLAIMER

To avoid doubt, this is not a scholarship information and we do not provide scholarship Application Forms either. It is just an announcement offering assistance to those who are in need. Helping others progress in Earth Resources Engineering.


We help to connect interested researchers to Researchers.



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Tuesday, 8 December 2020

Friday, 4 December 2020

Thursday, 26 November 2020

Slope Stability Analysis of Hamata Tailings Dam, Hidden Valley Mine, Papua New Guinea

Slope Stability Analysis of Hamata Tailings Dam, Hidden Valley Mine, Papua New Guinea

 ABSTRACT

Construction and management of Tailing dams in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is faced with many challenges such as high altitude with high rainfall (2000-5000 mm/yr), high seismicity and structurally controlled zones which pose threat to the slope stability of tailings dams. Therefore, slope stability analysis is necessary to give confidence to some extent to the stakeholders. The location for this study is at Hamata Tailings (dam) Storage Facility (TSF) at Hidden Valley Mine in PNG which has two rock/earth filled embankments, the main dam and the saddle dam with downstream construction method. Currently the TSF owner is planning to raise the dam height from RL 2000 to RL 2015 with extra 15 Mt storage capacity as the pond water approaching its designed capacity at RL 2000. The objective of this study is to analyse the slope stability of Hamata TSF using phase 2 based on the design basics for the crest expansion from RL 2000 to RL 2015 and beyond and recommend an ideal slope stability under various conditions in terms of shear strength reduction factor ((SSRF). The results obtained in this study is useful for PNG Mining Regulators in comparing company results in the appraisals for tailings dam development proposals and, it will be useful to future researchers in PNG and other similar tropical regions.

 Keywords: Tailings dam, slope stability analysis, Hamata TSF crest expansion, embankment, Shear Strength Reduction Factor, RL-Reduced Level(m).

 

Google image of Hidden Valley TSF

Cross Section 2



Note: Full paper for this abstract  is ready and can be accessed upon request via contact form in this website.

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Saturday, 31 October 2020

Waste Manage Management

Waste Management is basically planning and taking the responsibility of where to dispose off what is not needed. Waste is simply something that you don't need it for a particular task or purpose. However, some materials or waste are not really are waste. They can be recycled or used in elsewhere.

So to manage waste, one has to consider, what is really waste, what is recyclable and what is required at other places or purposes. Some waste are burnable and considered waste but then the burnable waste are also given second thought as to whether their remains after burning is usable or not. For example, organic materials are burnable but their remains after burning can be of useful for agricultural compost. 

Other waster are considered recyclable in the likes of metals and hydrocarbon products. For example, can drinks are recyclable as well and pet bottles are recyclable. 

So in managing waste, you have to consider the separation of these waste materials which you don't need but  others they need for recycling or  to be used for other purposes.

Some of the waste can be used for craft making and landform beautification and gardening. People have different ways to utilize waste materials into useful materials. But what that you consider waste must be disposed off in the right place so that the next person might need or will be a waste indeed.

So different countries have different waste management policies and regulations which all the citizens are bound to follow so that  the living environment or the surrounding environment including the natural environment is not polluted or affected by the waste produced or created by human beings.
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Clean up of Mine Waste in Papua New Guinea

 The Papua New Guinea's (PNG) Minister for Environment and Protection stated on the daily news paper dated October30, 2020 that an Hong Kong based company would be engaged to clean-up the mine waste in PNG at no cost to PNG government and the mining operators.

The company targets the river deltas where the Ok Tedi Mine and Porgera Mine dispose their mining waste. And the overseas based company is kind enough to clean up the mine waste in PNG.

The Minister may not be aware thinking that it is a good idea to get rid of the mine waste without realizing the value of the contents in it, Or he may be very well knowingly trying to get these assumed valuable residues from OK Tedi and Porgera which could be full of gold and other minerals. The Map interestingly showing the targets are Porgera and Ok Tedi river deltas. The foreign investor is not a non-sense to collect the mine waste from PNG deltas targeting Ok Tedi and Porgera tailings disposal rivers.  The tailings contain gold other gangue minerals which are unable to extract at the processing plants in both Porgera and Ok Tedi Mining.  And because both mines discharger their tailings into the river system, the sediments of these rivers (Strickland and Ok Tedi River) are rich in alluvial gold which can be extracted with improved techniques that can recover gold that are of fine particles.
 
It is good the company is interested in the mine waste disposal area and PNG should welcome the idea as it is an investing opportunity. however,  the company's approach is quite not right and must re-strategize and must make its hidden intention known by way of exploration proposal or Mining Proposal rather than saying they want to clean-up mine waste. They should apply for mineral tenement/leases and do the right thing with the PNG Mining Regulator which is Mineral Resources Authority.  
 
It must not be opposed but allow them to  progress and re-phrase to mine alluvial gold from  mine waste disposal areas rather then clean-up mine waste at the deltas. The deltas are rich in alluvial gold and industrial minerals if not known. It can only be proven with exploration and sampling.
Screen shot of The National News Paper publication..

 

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Thursday, 6 February 2020

Analysis of Flood in Mul District that caused 6 lives and Catastrophic destruction to properties

The flooding of Kuma Creek has caused massive destruction to properties and confirmed six fatalities downstream. Kuma Creek is such a small creek which is  a tributary of Gumanch River which joins with other rivers to form the Wagi River in the Western Highlands Province.

It is unbelievable for such a small creek to cause massive destruction to lives of people and properties downstream. According to preliminary report posted on Facebook dated 4th February 2020 by Stanley Kheel Kewa, it reads: 

"Preliminary reports from Mt Hagen confirm massive scale of destruction by the Kuma river a tributary of the Gumanch river in Mul district of Western Highlands Province. Four adults and five children totaling nine casualties as reported deaths now. More investigations are in progress as surrounding communities are assessing and investigating the magnitude of the destruction.
Local tribes in the area are the Nengka, Munjika & Mele tribes. Locals reporting from Hagen say this is one of the worst natural disasters the community has ever experienced since time immemorial. The Kuma & Gumanch rivers originate from the top peak of the highest mountain range in WHP known as the Mt Hagen range from which the current Hagen city got its name.
The Nengka Kuiprungils, Nengka Oiyambs and Munjika Rapgangils live at the edge of the Hagen range with houses and gardens patched along the Gumanch and Kuma tributaries.
Ken Paul is a local from the area and reports he is in Hagen town trying to mobilize disaster office and news personnel into the area for further investigations and reporting.
This is just a preliminary report with photos of the disaster zone downloaded from fb pages."


Locals on site - photo courtesy of Facebook


















Photo Courtesy of The National Newspaper
Debris of flood - Photo courtesy of facebook
MarapanaVillage aftermath - photo by National newspaper


Now,
one would wonder with questions in anticipating superstitions without establishing the facts and without even having a curiosity in mind. The possible cause of the flood can be best explained as follows;


There must be couple of landslips
caused by what is believed to be over saturated water-table/reservoir
contain by permeable rocks
at both steep
sides of the wedge walls/hills
of  Kuma Creek which is indicated on the snapshot below. 
Then the slipped materials must have
formed an embankment or base which blocked the upstream and the water built up at the upper end of the embankment which formed a temporary mini dam. 


As the mini dam rose with altitude, the stress build up also increased until it reached a

bursting failure in which debris of embankment together with other slipped materials along the creek's
pathway were all washed away and flooded the banks of Kuma and Gumanch Rivers which caused the catastrophic destruction to properties and fatality of 6 human lives. 


The mass flow of loose materials which blocked the flowing river which resulted in forming a mini dam were not competent or strong enough to withstand the pressure/stress build up at the upper end of the blockage, it then burst out and flooded the downstream at a greater momentum which is possible for massive destruction.
So sad that  many loved ones lost their lives due to the catastrophic disaster caused by this unusual flood.
Expected failed area
Location Failure is Expected


Marapana Village
Ariel view of Kuma,Tagla Kwip and Marapana
Note  that this analysis is based on opinion only and not substantiated with facts. If someone wants to proof with factual information then someone need to take a walk up the Kuma river and look for any trace of landslip. If that is so then that would be the cause of the flooding. 

To prevent properties and lives, build houses on higher grounds and also build flood walls along the river banks where valuable properties are installed. Do make awareness to kids and matured people to evacuate quick if unexpected signals are given before massive destruction happens again.


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Monday, 3 February 2020

Geothermal System Modelling - Basic Model

Geothermal System Modelling
Report Submitted by Group Fuji
Basic Model
1.0       Introduction

The Basic Model  parameters (basicmodel.in) was used to calculate the transient behaviour of the hydrotherm system up to 100,000 years. Team Fuji analysed the calculation results in the numerical model by changing one of the parameters in the initial model and run the simulation using HYDOTHERM. In this case, the team changed the size of the heat source while keeping the other parameters constant in the model. The calculation results were run at 20000,40000,60000,80000 and 100000 years.

The physical modes of each scenario are demonstrated in the following model diagrams (Fig. 1-5) below. Heat Source is shown at the centre at 4km x 4km x 2km for the basic model which is represented in red cubical color. The size of the heat source is decreased by 3km x 3km x 2km and then increased to 6km x 6km x 2km in that order. Two different input file  with the different  sizes in X and Y direction  (heat source dimensions only) were run using  Jupiter post-processor (Hydrotherm program). After the simulation in the series of years mentioned above, temperature and flow variation were used to explain the trends in cooling rate of the heat source and temperature variation with time, corresponding analysis is illustrated in the discussion section.

Fig. 1 Heat source at the deeper layer
 of the model (2km thick) 
  Fig. 2 Section View of the initial
 model

  

Fig. 3 Overview of the initial block model
  Fig. 4 Section view of the block model when heat source decreased to 3km x 3km

    


Fig. 5 Sectional view of the block model when increasing the
 size of the heat source by 6km x 6km
                               

Note: everything else is kept constant except the size of heat source changed for the next two models.

2.0    Discussion

1.1 Heat source

The trend of the cooling equations (below) illustrate the differences in the thickness of the heat sources. Therefore, the larger the areal extent of the heat source is inverse proportional to the cooling rate.  The bigger the heat source, the longer it takes to for it to cool down.



Figure 6: Cooling rate of the heat source
The cooling equations for the model with 3kmx3kmx2km, 4kmx4kmx2km and 6kmx6kmx2km heat sources are shown below:

respectively.


1.2  Rate of cooling of the reservoir


The graph below portrays the cooling rate of the reservoir, approximately 1km above the heat source where the convective heat transfer currents are mostly upwelling.



4kmx4kmx2km heat source
 


Figure 7: Cooling rate of the reservoir

The reservoir cooling curves in Fig.7 above have near - similar trend except for the model with 6kmx6kmx2km heat source which has a kink upwelling at 40,000 years.


1.3 Interstitial steam and water flow

1.3.1        3kmx3kmx2km heat source model


At 20,000years, the hot water rises from the center of the model and travels upward towards the surface as interstitial water moves slowly to recharge the reservoir. At 40,000 years, the rising hot water together with the conduction heat transfer heats a larger area above the magma thus expanding the reservoir area (region in which hot water rises upward).  From 60,000 to 100,000 years, the model cools to below 200°C and convective currents carrying hot water upward weakens over time.
Figure 8: Simulation of 3km x 3km x 2km heat source after 20000 years.


1.3.2        6kmx6kmx2km heat source model

At 20,000years, we have two convective upflow regions which may form two reservoirs about 1km on either side of the center of the model (approx. 9000m and 11000m from LHS of the model).


At 40,000yrs, the two reservoirs merge into one as the heat source cools with convective currents weakening as the model ages all the way to 100,000years.
Figure 10: Simulation of 6km x 6km x 2km heat source after 40000 years.


3.0     Conclusion

In this study, only the heat source dimensions were varied without any change in other parameters.  The results were then evaluated and discussed using that assumption.

The areal extent of the heat sources directly influences the convective flow of fluids and temperature. However, transient temperature evaluation indicates that the rate of cooling of the heat source is inversely proportional to the size of the heat source. The larger size (6km x 6km x 2km) of the heat source allows for a longer period of high-temperature fluid convection. 









     
Source: Groupwork Hydrotherm Basic Model Assignment Report -
Contributions to Group Fuji:
Islomove Sunnatullo-Rock Engineering, Koskey Philemon Kiprotich- Geothermics, Gilbert Bett Kipngetich-Geothermics, Gutierrez Donaire Kevin Yamil - Geothermics, Haissama Osmanali - Geothermics, Kuri Las - Rock Engineering, Lim Pagna-Economic Geology, Mwangi Samuel Muraguri -Geothermics, Ngethe John-Energy Resources, Omondi Philip Omollo-Geothermics, Samod Yuossouf Hassan - Economic Geology


Figure 12 : 3X3 Heat source       Figure 11: 6X6 Heat source







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Thursday, 2 January 2020

Frieda River (SMLA9) Mining Warden Hearing

Frieda River copper and gold project is located at the border of East and West Sepik. The holder of the exploration license EL58 lodged an application  for a Special Mining Lease on 24th june 2016. This date is the date at which the application was registered by the Registrar of Mineral Tenements. This process is pretty much similar to that of land lease process.

As per the process, the Registrar upon registration gives notice to the Chief Mining Warden and other officers for technical appraisal. This triggers the next procedure which is the Warden Hearing Process. the Chief Warden together with the registrar fixes a date and time and venue and notify impacted stakes holders regarding the hearing. This is a public forum for the impacted stake holders where the views of the impacted people are gauged.

As such, the above process were followed and Mining Warden hearing was conducted at several venues. The Application was not only the SML application but some other auxiliary leases as well such as lease for mining purposes (LMP), Mining Lease, Mining Easements (ME). To cater for all these leases, there were several venues fixed for hearing. the impacted communities of the Frieda River Project include but not limited to the following:
* Wabia village
*Ok Isai Air strip
*Kubkain village
*Iniok Village
*Aum 3 Village
*Wemimin 1 & 2
* Hotmine Mission Station

The Views of the people were gauged and report compiled for further deliberation. The views of the people were either supportive or objective. The the job of the mining warden is the record all good or bad comments and compile report and also give his/her view.

The other part of the technical assessment is another process which is dealt with by the technical assessment team.
Chief Mining Warden, Andrew Gunua was  Conducting Mining Warden Hearing at Ok Isai, for the Frieda River SML 9 Application in the West Sepik Province 

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