Learning and Discussion of Innovative ideas about Mining Waste Management and also Mining Related News and Activities

  • Mine Waste Management Training

    Mine Waste Management Short training sponsored by Government of Japan through JICA in corporation with the Government of PNG through CEPA, MRA and DMPGM.

  • Mount Sinivit Mine

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) continues to flow from the abondoned workings (mine). It is of two types and they are Mine Drainage from underground and open-pit and the seepage water from waste dump and tailings dam.

  • Mining Warden Hearing at Ok Isai Village, Frieda River, East Sepik Province, PNG

    Landowner grievances is always a challenge for the PNG Mining Industry. However, the Regulators of the Mining Inductry facilitate Mining Warden Hearings and Development Forums to address grievances related to mining.

  • Osarizawa Underground Mine Adit

    Osarizawa Underground Mine is an abandoned mine in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Event though the mine is closed, the mine site is kept for sightseeing purposes.

  • Hidden Valley Tailings Storage Facility (TSF)

    Mine Waste refers to the waste related to mining activities such as tailings and waste rock. Management refer to how the mine derived waste is managed by the operator and or the Regulatory Body.




Showing posts with label Rapid PACKTEST. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rapid PACKTEST. Show all posts

Sunday, 28 January 2018

Data Analysis of Rapid PACKTEST Results

Upon the completion of the setup and PACKTEST, you have the data available at hand to record. In your note book you record the readings of pH, Turbidity, Temperature, metal conductivity. Then you have the other sets of data from the PACKTEST results. Each element tested has got a numbered colour range that corresponds to the concentration of that element/compound in the water sample. You record every data for the elements that are tested.

Finally, you need to digitise the data and analyse the test results. To do that, you need to have a computer or a laptop. Create an excel spread sheet in your laptop or computer and enter the field data in a tabulated format. Your sample results look like the table below:
Table 1 Rapid PACKTEST Results
Now, data analysis is the comparison, verification and few comments or conclusion drawn from the raw data collected from various spots/sites which are tabulated like Table 1 (above). A good analysis of data/ results is always a careful comparison and contrast in the data obtained by plotting the data in different graphical methods.

Be careful to graph the related data so that any conclusion drawn can make sense with respect to particular information. i.e. if you plot all the data into one graph then always take note of the legends so that your interpretation is accurate in reporting.

It is also better to take readings at different weather patterns i.e. during rainy seasons and dry seasons. Remember to keep the sample points unchanged so that a good comparison is made.
From the data analysis, it is better to make few comments and off course a recommendation is anticipated from the field investigation. Your recommendation should provide a clear direction/ indication should there be precautions taken within the vicinity of the impacted project area especially the mine impacted communities. Your recommendation should also alert the local government authorities regarding the findings and what to do in that part of the area.





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Tuesday, 16 January 2018

How to Conduct Rapid PACKTEST in a Well (below 1 meter in depth)

Well is simply a shaft sunk into the ground or built upwards from certain depths below a natural surface of the ground which extends further above certain heights of the natural surface of the ground 

Wells can be naturally occurring or man-made. Man-made wells are created to suite the desired purpose(s) of the organisation or individuals. Wells can be created to collect water or oil or gas below the earth’s surface.

In a mining operation, wells are created for the purposes of heap leaching through a vat. Heap Leaching is one of the various mining techniques to extract gold from the ore of various host rocks using cyanide which is one of the common solvent in this gold recovery technique.

During the gold recovery process, cyanide is sprinkled over the heap of crushed gold bearing gravels (ore) to dissolve the gold into a pregnant solution or into liquid form. The pregnant solution is then sucked out through the vat and further into carbon columns and take to the processing plant for further processing and smelting.

Upon the closure of the mine, the vats are no longer in use. Cyanide is left behind the pool beside the heap-vats eventually gets into the surrounding environment which is a concern for mine waste management. Water is then filled through the Vats up to certain heights.  So from the top and surface of the heap-vats, the water level is below certain depths of about 2 – 3 meters which are hardly reached by hand. And also the diameter of the vats is about 30-40 cm which is too narrow to be accessed. So how can you how can you overcome this challenge to take a water sample for a Rapid PACKTEST as well as other measurements?

The simple way to get sample is by utilising the following equipment procedures:

1.     String line (rope)
2.     Metal weight(1kg weight)
3.     3x1 Litre plastic bottle(container)
4.     Masking tape
5.     Water level measuring tape
6.     GPS
7.     Note book, pen, pencil
8.     Camera
9.     Blade/kitchen knife
10. PACKTEST kits
11. Syringe
12. 0.45µm filter
13. turbidity meter
14. pH meter
15. Laptop/computer


 Procedure

1.     Cut the 1 Litre plastic bottles (container) into more than half.
2.     Tie the 1kg metal weight at the tip of the string line.
3.     With the masking tape, fasten the cut container with the weight attached to the stringline.
4.     Drop the container attached to the weight and stringline into the well and allow the container to be filled with water.
5.     Pull the string line with all its attached items and pour the fetched water into the other reserved containers.
6.     Never forget to measure the water level by using the 50m water level measuring tape.
7.     Using the GPS you take the readings of sample location coordinates and altitude and location zone.
8.     Finally , you conduct Rapid PACKTEST and
9.     Turbidity and pH measurements, conductivity and temperature readings as well.

The above procedure can be repeated for wells or pools that are hardly accessible in person or by hand.

Data Collection of theRapid PACKTEST is the final thing to do before moving to the next location or ending the field work.




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Data Collection of Rapid PACKTEST Results

Data collection is the recording and assembling of results obtained from the Rapid PACKTEST experiments at various locations.

Before you conduct the packtests, you need to have the required materials for preparation, experiment and recording of data. The materials and equipment you would require for testing include but not limited to:
Packtest Kits.
GPS
Note Book
Pencil/pen
3 x Half cut container
syringe
0.45µm filter
Camera/smart phone with camera.
turbidity meter
pH meter
Laptop/computer

Once you have the above equipment list, you are about to conduct the PACKTEST and other necessary measurements. But before that you must never forget to give a sample location name or sample code/ID and record the coordinates, location zone and offcourse altitude of the sample location. This will ease the management of various data of the same type.

Thereafter, you proceed with the PACKTEST procedures as outline below which is a global practice:

Sampling Procedure for PACKTEST

1. Fetch water in container and filter the water using syringe and 0.45µm filter to filter water sample and pour filtered water sample into a clear mini cylinder(half cut container).
2. Remove the colored line at the top of the tube to clear the aperture.
3.    Press tube's sidewall to expel air, and hold the tube.
4. Immerse the aperture of the tube into the water sample in the mini cylinder and release to fill the tube halfway.
5. Shake the tube slowly for few seconds.
6. Wait for the reaction time as indicated in the instruction manual, and then compare the actual color in the tube with provided Standard Color. The nearest color indicates the concentration value (mg/L = ppm) of the analyte in your sample.

Concurrently set up the equipment for measuring the pH, temperature, metal conductivity and turbidity of the water sample at the same sample location for the packtest water sample taken.  After the setup is complete, you take the reading carefully as the reading varies every second. It is recommended to take the best average reading.

Upon the completion of the setup and PACKTESTs, you have the data available at hand to record. In your note book you record the readings of pH, Turbidity, Temperature, metal conductivity. Then you have the other sets of data from the PACKTEST results. Each element tested has got a numbered colour range that corresponds to the concentration of that element/compound in the water sample. You record every data for the elements that are tested.

Finally you need to digitise the data and analyse the test results. To do that, you need to have a computer or a laptop. Create an excel spread sheet in your laptop or computer and enter the field data in a tabulated format. Your sample results look like the table below:
Table 1: Rapid PACKTEST Results
How to do data analysis from the PACKTEST results and other measurements is in a different article (Data Analysis of Rapid PACKTEST Results)


Related Articles:
Rapid PACKTEST
Data Collection of Rapid PACKTEST Results
Data Analysis of Rapid PACKTEST Results
How to Conduct Rapid PACKTEST in a Well


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Sunday, 24 December 2017

Rapid PACKTEST

Rapid PACKTEST is commonly known as PACKTEST. This test is a simple onsite method of testing water quality which produces amazing results in a split of a second. It does not require complicated analytical techniques to determine the quality of water. Concentration of heavy metals, precious metals and any other elements and compounds in the water are detected using this method. pH of water can also be determined using this method. Water in this case can be a flowing creek,settling ponds, pool beside vats or heap leach pads, mine pits etc.

     PACKTEST Results for Pihema Creek, 
      Morobe Province.  Cyanide Detected
       (Dark-blue).
The results indicate the concentration of elements intended to test in the water which also influences the pH of water. The readings will give an estimated range of figures and do not have to be exact. Readings are taken with confidence in accuracy of about 90%. To obtain exact results, further laboratory testing is recommended.

It is recommended that Pact Test should be practiced by all government regulators in the extractive industries especially in the Mining and petroleum industry. This will greatly help during statutory inspections which can give results instantly onsite rather than waiting for results in the laboratory after few weeks or months. This will also be a alert for the industry to treat waste water effectively or improve on their waste water treatments and monitoring techniques.
The process and the setup of the testing method are outlined below.

Sampling Procedure for PACKTEST
1.            Fetch water in container and filter the water using syringe and 0.45µm filter to filter water sample and pour filtered water sample into a clear mini cylinder.
2.             Remove the colored line at the top of the tube to clear the aperture.
3.            Press tube's sidewall to expel air, and hold the tube.
4.            Immerse the aperture of the tube into the water sample in the mini cylinder and release to fill the tube halfway.
5.            Shake the tube slowly for few seconds.
6.            Wait for the reaction time as indicated in the instruction manual, and then compare the actual color in the tube with provided Standard Color. The nearest color indicates the concentration value (mg/L = ppm) of the analyte in your sample.
 The above Figure is a simplified diagram by
KYORITSU CHEMICAL-CHECK Lab
 as a guide.

Note: Cyanide is tested differently. Before the above procedure is applied, first of all dissolve the mixing reagent into the filtered water in a small enclosed translucent cube of about 2cm x 2cm x 1.5cm in size. Finally immerse the cyanide reagent into the solution and release to fill up the tube. Shake the tube and record the reading after 8 minutes.

The reaction times for each element or compound varies from seconds to minutes. Reaction time for cyanide takes longer than any other elements or compounds. It could be other elements or compounds as well but during the tests conducted by the reporter indicated that cyanide took longer than other elements.

It is recommended that PACKTEST should be conducted on site. It would be a bad practice if sample is taken from a different spot and date and tested on different date and location as the results would not represent the sample location and time. If you do then be aware to note the results and anticipate error in the readings recorded.

Other Equipment for testing water quality includes but not limited to pH meter, Turbidity Meter. pH meter is for measuring the pH level of water  and also measure the temperature of water. Turbidity meter measures turbidity of water and also temperature and metal conductivity in the water. 

Turbidity is the measure of suspended particles of sediments flowing under or through the water. It could be steal water or running water.

Related Articles:
Data Collection of Rapid PACKTEST Results
Data Analysis of Rapid PACKTEST Results
How to Conduct Rapid PACKTEST in a Well


Note: This post is subject to change based on continuous review and amendment.
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